Even states with majority African-American population often elected only one or two African-American representatives to Congress. Some worked for wages, others as sharecroppers, who divided the crop with the owner at the end of the year. Total wartime casualties numbered well over one million, in an American population of around thirty-two million. To ‘Joy My Freedom: On Easter Sunday, April 13, , the whites attacked the defenders at the courthouse. They introduced various reconstruction programs including: However, because they lacked capital and the planters continued to own the means of production tools, draft animals and land , the freedmen were forced into producing cash crops mainly cotton for the land-owners and merchants, and they entered into a crop-lien system.

The tool used by the industrialists was the combination of the Northern Republican Party and sufficient Southern support using Carpetbaggers and black voters. They constituted the Bourbon wing of the national Democratic Party. In ten states, not including Virginia , coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North ” carpetbaggers ” , and white Southerners who supported Reconstruction ” scalawags ” cooperated to form Republican biracial state governments. It ignored constitutional issues of states rights and even ignored American nationalism as the force that finally led to victory in the war. In the years immediately following the war, ex-Confederates won control of the state government and instituted policies that severely limited the rights of newly freed slaves.

To ‘Joy My Freedom: Republican clubs marched the streets of Philadelphia, amid revolver shots and brickbats, to save the negroes from the “rebel” savages in Alabama Congress launched a member investigation committee on the status of the Southern Reconstruction states: In the Coushatta Massacre inthe White League assassinated six reconstfuction Republican officeholders and five to twenty black witnesses outside CoushattaRed River Parish.

reconstruction 1865-77 essay

Reflecting the shifting mood, a series of Supreme Court decisions, beginning with the Slaughterhouse Cases inseverely limited the geconstruction of Reconstruction laws and constitutional amendments. These questions remain subjects of controversy today.

These were criminal codes which protected the Freedmen’s right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and receive equal protection of laws.


reconstruction 1865-77 essay

A law that does not allow a colored person to go from one county to another, and one that does not allow him to hold property, to teach, to preach, are certainly laws in violation of the rights of a freeman The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them.

The African-Americans supported this belief.

Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877

The Congressional elections turned on the issue of Reconstruction, producing a sweeping Republican victory in the North, and providing the Radical Republicans with sufficient control of Congress to override Johnson’s vetoes and commence their own “Radical Reconstruction” in This site contains features which require JavaScript.

Archived from the original on December 13, Harris, With Charity for All: Leaders included editors of some of the nation’s most powerful newspapers.

The argument made by the taxpayers, however, was plausible and it may be conceded that, upon the whole, they were about right; for no doubt it would have been much easier upon the taxpayers to have increased at that time the interest-bearing debt of the State than to have increased the tax rate. Lincoln outlawed discrimination on account of color, in carrying U.

Retrieved May 22,from https: The laws allowed the confiscation of lands for colonization from those who aided and supported the rebellion.

reconstruction 1865-77 essay

Although strongly urged by moderates in Congress to sign the Civil Rights bill, Johnson broke decisively with them by vetoing it on March 27, Historians are unsure if Lincoln gave up on the idea of African-American colonization at the end of or if he actually planned to continue this policy up until Every Southern state subsidized railroads, which modernizers believed could haul the South out of isolation and poverty.

Reconstruction is the term given to the period after the Civil War, from towhen the U.

Reconstruction era – Wikipedia

In its aftermath, during the era of Reconstruction, Americans struggled to come to terms with these dramatic changes and, temporarily, established biracial democratic government on the ashes of slavery. The return to power of the southern whites would seriously threaten all their gains, and so the ex-Confederates had to be kept out of power.


His biographer calls him the “High Priest of the Radical Republicans”. The lynchings were used for intimidation and social control, with a frequency associated with economic stresses and the settlement of sharecropper accounts at the end of the season, than for any other reason.

Civil War and Reconstruction, | Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

In the end, three whites died and — blacks were killed, some 50 that evening while being held as prisoners. The new organization operated openly and had political goals: American Civil War Reconstruction Term Paper … Reconstruction Period Reconstruction was the period in American history which can be called a failure because it was marked by extreme recinstruction segregation and futility of all acts concerning… Pages: Lincoln planned to free the Southern slaves in the Emancipation Proclamation and he was concerned that freedmen would not be well treated in the United States by whites in both the North and South.

White rule was restored, and black people were, over time, deprived of many civil and political rights. APA Format Reconstruction The national debate over Reconstruction began during the Civil War. When all the Rreconstruction states refused to approve the Fourteenth Amendment and protect the rights of its black citizens the stage was set for more severe measures.

The defeated South was a barren land at the end of the Civil War.